U.S. Army Indian Campaign Medal
U.S. Army Indian Campaign Medal - This medal was established by War Department General Orders 12, in 1907. It was created at the same time as the Civil War Campaign Medal. Initially, the suspending ribbon was all red; however, two black stripes were added, in December 1917, because of the similarity to a ribbon used by the French for the French Legion of Honor, a medal that had been awarded to some American Soldiers during WWI. The Indian War Campaign Medal was awarded, according to the War Department, for service in enumerated campaigns or “against hostile Indians in any other action in which the United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 or 1891.” The medal and ribbon are in excellent condition.
Maker: Francis Millet (Designer) – Francis D. Millet designed the Indian War Service Medal which was struck by the Philadelphia Mint.
Dimensions: 2.75″ H x 1.3″ W
Physical Description: (in accordance with The Code of Federal Regulations): The medal of bronze is 11⁄4 inches in diameter. On the obverse is a mounted Indian facing sinister, wearing a war bonnet, and carrying a spear in his right hand. Above the horseman are the words ‘‘Indian Wars,’’ and below, on either side of a buffalo skull, the circle is completed by arrowheads, conventionally arranged. On the reverse is a trophy, composed of an eagle perched on a cannon supported by crossed flags, rifles, an Indian shield, spear, and quiver of arrows, a Cuban machete, and a Sulu kriss. Below the trophy are the words ‘‘For Service.’’ The whole is surrounded by a circle composed of the words ‘‘United States Army’’ in the upper half and thirteen stars in the lower half. The medal is suspended by a ring from a silk moire ribbon 13⁄8inches in length and 13⁄8 inches in width composed of a red stripe (1⁄4 inch), black stripe (3⁄16 inch), red band (1⁄2inch), black stripe (3⁄16 inch), and red stripe (1⁄4 inch).
The Indian Wars medal commemorates over 30 years of battles between the Army and Native Americans. This is the second style ribbon. The Indian Campaign Medal was issued as a one-time decoration only and there were no devices or service stars authorized for those who had participated in multiple actions. The only attachment authorized to the medal was the silver citation star, awarded for meritorious or heroic conduct. The silver citation star was the predecessor of the Silver Star and was awarded to eleven soldiers between 1865 and 1891.
The Code of Federal Regulations declares service in the following campaigns as requirements for award of the Indian Campaign Medal:
Southern Oregon, Idaho, northern California, and Nevada between 1865 and 1868.
Against the Comanches and confederate tribes in Kansas, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico, and Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875.
Modoc War between 1872 and 1873.
Against the Apaches in Arizona in 1873.
Against the Northern Cheyennes and Sioux between 1876 and 1877.
Nez Perce War in 1877.
Bannock War in 1878.
Against the Northern Cheyennes between 1878 and 1879.
Against the Sheep-Eaters, Piutes, and Bannocks between June and October, 1879.
Against the Utes in Colorado and Utah between September 1879 and November 1880.
Against the Apaches in Arizona and New Mexico between 1885 and 1886.
Against the Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January 1891.
Against hostile Indians in any other action in which United States troops were killed or wounded between 1865 and 1891