Confederate Id’d Southern Cross of Honor – Private Henry Arp, Co. H 28th Texas Cavalry

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Confederate Id’d Southern Cross of Honor – Private Henry Arp, Co. H 28th Texas Cavalry – Confederate Southern Cross of Honor issued to Private Henry Arp, wartime private in Co. H 28th Texas Cavalry. Arp enlisted in March, 1862 and served until the regiment disbanded in June, 1865. The 28th Texas Cavalry became a dismounted regiment shortly after its initial inception and was assigned to Polgnac’s, Randal’s and Maclay’s Brigade, of the Trans-Mississippi Department of the Confederate Army. This brigade was engaged in conflicts in Louisiana and Arkansas, seeing major combat at the Battles of Sabine Crossroads and Pleasant Hill, both in Louisiana and at the Battle of Jenkins Ferry, in Arkansas. The pin bar of this Cross of Honor has engraved, in a manuscript mode, the name – “Henry F. Arp”; on the Texas Death Certificate for Henry Arp, his name is listed as “Fred Henry Arp” – this appears to be an error, as Arp’s son was named “Henry Frank Arp”, after his father. Arp was a Scottish immigrant, whose parents brought him to America, after he was, according to his Texas death certificate, “born at sea”. This Cross of Honor is one of the early issues, as it has the first manufacturer of the crosses, Charles Crankshaw’s raised name on the back of the pin bar and the location of Crankshaw’s business – Atlanta. Henry Arp died in 1913, therefore he would have received this Cross of Honor some time in the early 20th century, within the first 10 to 12 years that the UDC started awarding these medals. The mode of attachment is the second mode utilized – the threaded post, that was put through a lapel buttonhole and affixed by an oval, threaded brad; the brad is now missing. This medal remains in excellent condition.

Henry Arp

Residence was not listed;

Enlisted on 3/1/1862 as a Private.

On 3/1/1862 he mustered into “H” Co. TX 28th Cavalry

(date and method of discharge not given)

(Estimated date of enlistment)

Military Unit

Twenty-eighth Cavalry (Randal’s Regiment, First Lancers)

Full Name

Arp, Henry

Age

34

Year

1862

Estimated Birth Year

1827 – 1828

Conflict Period

Civil War (Confederate)

Branch

Confederate Army

 

Henry Arp

BIRTH

2 Dec 1835

DEATH

16 Aug 1913 (aged 77)

BURIAL

Old City Cemetery

Galveston, Galveston County, Texas, USA

 

28th TX Cavalry

Organized:
Mustered Out: 5/26/65

 

From To Brigade Division Corps Army Comment
May ’62 May ’62 Eastern district Dept of Texas
May ’62 Aug ’62 Eastern district Trans-Mississippi Department
Sep ’62 Sep ’62 Randal’s McCulloch’s District of AR Trans-Mississippi Department
Sep ’62 Jan ’63 Randal’s McCulloch’s 2nd Trans-Mississippi Department
Feb ’63 Mar ’63 Randal’s McCulloch’s/Walker’s District of AR Trans-Mississippi Department
May ’63 Apr ’64 Randal’s Walker’s District of West LA Trans-Mississippi Department
Apr ’64 May ’64 Randal’s/Maclay’s Walker’s District of AR Trans-Mississippi Department
May ’64 Sep ’64 Maclay’s Walker’s District of West LA Trans-Mississippi Department
Sep ’64 May ’65 3rd TX 1st TX 1st Trans-Mississippi Department

28th Texas Cavalry Regiment

 

Cols. Eli H. Baxton, Horace Randal, Ltcol. Henry G. Hall,

Maj. Patrick Henry

The regiment was formed in the spring of 1862 with 12 companies and

about 1000 men and included men from Fairfield and Shelby counties. It

was soon dismounted. It was assigned to Polignac’s, Randal’s, Maclay’s

brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department. In mid-1864 one company was

transferred to the 19th Texas Infantry Rgt. It fought at Mansfield,

Pleasant Hill and Jenkins’ Ferry. It disbanded prior to the June

surrender.

28th Regiment, Texas Cavalry (Randal’s) (1st Texas Lancers)

OVERVIEW:

28th Cavalry Regiment was organized during the late spring of 1862 by Colonel H. Randal. It was formed with about 1,000 men and twelve companies, but one company was transferred to the 19th Texas Infantry Regiment in mid-1864. Some of its members were from Fairfield and Shelby Counties. The unit was soon dismounted and assigned to Polignac’s, Randal’s, and Maclay’s Brigade, Trans-Mississippi Department, and was active in various conflicts in Louisiana and Arkansas. It saw some hard fighting at Mansfield and Pleasant Hill, then fought at Jenkins’ Ferry. The 28th disbanded prior to the surrender in June, 1865. The field officers were Colonels Eli H. Baxter and Horace Randal, Lieutenant Colonel Henry G. Hall, and Major Patrick Henry.

Twenty-Eighth Texas Cavalry

By: Andy Galloway

Published: April 13, 2011

TWENTY-EIGHTH TEXAS CAVALRY.The Twenty-eighth Texas Cavalry Regiment was organized in May 1862 by Col. Horace Randal. It was formed with about 1,021 men and twelve companies, although one company was transferred to the Nineteenth Texas Infantry Regiment in mid-1864. The companies, which had colorful names like the “Clough and Hill Avengers,” were made up of men from East Texas counties, primarily Shelby, Cherokee, Panola, Cass, Smith, Harrison, Upshur, Anderson, Freestone, Houston, Trinity, and Polk.

Because the Twenty-eighth was not formed at the outset of war, its membership was a little different from some of the other Texas Confederate regiments. On average, the men were older, more likely to be married, less likely to own slaves, and less affluent. The Twenty-eighth had to take out an advertisement in the Marshall Texas Republican for weapon donations. Furthermore, the unit was dismounted soon after its creation, not due to lack of horses, but rather to a lack of forage for the animals at their destination in Arkansas.

In July 1862 the Twenty-eighth Texas Cavalry left Texas and traveled by way of Shreveport, Louisiana, to Camp Nelson near Austin, Arkansas. There, the Twenty-eighth joined three Texas infantry regiments and a dismounted cavalry battalion in a brigade commanded by their first colonel, Horace Randal. Eli H. Baxter, Jr., took command of the regiment. In October 1862 the unit became part of a new division organized by Brig. Gen. Henry E. McCulloch. During the fall of 1862 the regiment suffered terribly from sickness and lost seventy-eight men to disease and infection.

On January 1, 1863, Maj. Gen. John G. Walker took command of the division and soon became its namesake. Walker’s grandfather had served on George Washington’s staff, and Walker himself had fought with Gen. Winfield Scott’s army in the Mexican War and earned the rank of captain. In September 1861 he resigned his position with the United States Army and joined the Confederacy and served under Robert E. Lee. He quickly ascended the ranks, and his skillful leadership was rewarded with command of his own Texas division.

The Twenty-eighth Cavalry’s first campaign came in early 1863 when it was dispatched to the relief of the Confederate fort at Arkansas Post. However, the unit arrived immediately after the surrender of the post and saw no action. It then went into winter quarters from February until April 1863.

The Twenty-eighth spent the late spring and early summer of 1863 in fruitless efforts to aid in the relief of Vicksburg. It did not participate in any significant fighting but still wound up worn out from marching and countermarching in central Louisiana. In the fall of 1863, Union troops sought to mount an overland offensive across southern Louisiana into Texas, which Walker’s Texas Division played a role in turning back. Once again, however, the Twenty-eighth did not fight in any major battle. It spent the months from December 1863 until February 1864 in winter camp.

In the spring of 1864, Union forces commanded by Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks, supported by a large flotilla of gunboats, began an advance up the Red River with the intention of disrupting the Confederacy’s Trans-Mississippi Department, destroying its supply base in Texas, establishing a loyalist state government in Louisiana, and planting the United States flag in Texas to warn the French in Mexico against meddling in the Civil War. The Twenty-eighth Texas Cavalry played a key role in opposing Banks’s forces and in the process engaged in the only heavy combat that it saw during the war. At the victorious battle of Mansfield on April 8, the regiment had four killed and seventeen wounded. On the following day, at Pleasant Hill, the Twenty-eighth participated in an attack on the Federals who had taken a defensive position and lost nine dead, forty-four wounded, and two missing. Union troops held their position, but Banks soon broke off his campaign and moved down the Red River.

The men of the Twenty-eighth were bloodied and exhausted, but they had no time to rest. Union Gen. Fredrick Steele had moved an army from Little Rock toward Shreveport, with the intention of joining Banks’s forces in the Red River campaign, when news of Mansfield and Pleasant Hill caused him to retreat. Units of Walker’s Texas Division, including the Twenty-eighth Cavalry pursued the Federals and forced a fight on April 30, 1864, at the battle of Jenkins’ Ferry on the Saline River. One member of Walker’s Texas Division described the battle as an “incessant roar of musketry,” which lasted more than six hours. And it cost the Twenty-eighth more casualties than any other engagement during the war – twenty killed, forty wounded, and two missing. Horace Randal, the unit’s first colonel and now a brigadier general, was mortally wounded and died on May 2.

In August 1864 General Walker was replaced by Maj. Gen. John H. Forney, a graduate of West Point and a harsh disciplinarian. His style of strict control was resented by the men of Walker’s Greyhounds, and when the order came to cross to the east side of the Mississippi River in August 1864, many in the brigade refused to follow their new leader. Furthermore, duties seemed to consist more of watching out for civil disputes than facing an enemy, and pay was short, as were tempers. The unit was ordered to Hempstead, Texas, in early 1865 and officially disbanded in May.

28th Texas Cavalry Regiment

28th Texas Cavalry Regiment
Horace Randal, shown wearing a pre-war US Army uniform, was the regiment’s first colonel.
Active May 1862 – 26 May 1865
Country  Confederate States of America
Allegiance  Confederate States of America,  Texas
Branch  Confederate States Army
Type Cavalry and Infantry
Size Regiment
Engagements

o       Battle of Milliken’s Bend (1863)

o       Battle of Mansfield (1864)

o       Battle of Pleasant Hill (1864)

o       Battle of Jenkins’ Ferry (1864)

Commanders
Notable
commanders
Horace Randal

 

Texas Cavalry Regiments (Confederate)
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27th Texas Cavalry 29th Texas Cavalry

The 28th Texas Cavalry Regiment was a unit of mounted volunteers recruited in east Texas that fought in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. In May 1862, the regiment entered Confederate service and served the entire war west of the Mississippi River in the region known as the Trans-Mississippi Department. The unit was soon dismounted before being assigned to the 2nd Brigade of the all-Texas infantry division known as Walker’s Greyhounds. In 1863, the regiment played a secondary role at Milliken’s Bend. The regiment fought in three major battles during April 1864, at MansfieldPleasant Hill, and Jenkins’ Ferry. The Trans-Mississippi Department surrendered on 26 May 1865, but the survivors dispersed to their homes before that date.

Formation

The 28th Texas Cavalry Regiment was organized and enrolled in Confederate service in May 1862. The regiment originally consisted of 1,021 men in 12 companies, though a muster roll from 1863 (see below) only showed 10 companies, from A to K, excluding J. Compared to regiments formed at the beginning of the conflict, the recruits were older, more likely to be married, less wealthy, and less likely to own slaves. The soldiers hailed from AndersonCassCherokeeFreestoneHarrisonHoustonPanolaPolkShelbySmithTrinity, and Upshur Counties. In order to secure enough weapons, an advertisement was published in the Texas Republican newspaper in Marshall, Texas.[1] The field officers were Colonel Horace RandalLieutenant Colonel Eli H. Baxter, and Major H. G. Hall. Other regimental staff were Surgeon W. P. Smith, Assistant Surgeon E. W. Ceade, Quartermaster N. P. Ward, and Adjutant George T. Howard.[2]

Captains of the 28th Texas Cavalry Regiment (1863)[2]
Company Captain
A W. A. Jemison
B P. Henry
C A. W. D. Berry
D J. M. Scott
E O. M. Doty
F Theophilus Perry
G W. F. Roberts
H J. C. Means
I J. A. McLemore
K W. H. Rumsey

Service

1862

By mid-September 1862, the 28th Texas Cavalry was in Arkansas, with about 1,000 men under the command of Randal.[3] When the Confederacy began conscription, many men considered it to be shameful to be drafted, and they volunteered. Since most enlisted in cavalry units, there were not enough foot soldiers. Therefore, the authorities ordered many cavalry regiments to be dismounted to serve as infantry. On 28 September, the 28th Texas Cavalry was ordered to give up their horses and join an infantry brigade. Dismounting was resented by the rank and file, and many men complained, to no avail.[4] The Texas regiments marched to Camp Nelson near Austin, Arkansas. The camp was named for Texas Brigadier General Allison Nelson who died a few days before the soldiers arrived there. Diseases swept through the camp killing about 1,500 men in late 1862.[5] The 28th Texas Cavalry lost 78 men during this period.[1]

While at Camp Nelson, the Texas units were organized into a division under Brigadier General Henry E. McCulloch, and the 28th Texas Cavalry regiment was assigned to the 2nd Brigade. The other units in the brigade were the 11th Texas Infantry and 14th Texas Infantry Regiments, Robert S. Gould’s 6th Texas Cavalry Battalion (dismounted), and J. M. Daniel’s Texas Battery. Randal was appointed commander of 2nd Brigade, so Lieutenant Colonel Baxter assumed command of the regiment.[6][note 1] Later, McCulloch was replaced by Major General John George Walker and the division became known as Walker’s Greyhounds. McCulloch then took command of the 3rd Brigade.[7] The division originally had four brigades, but the 4th Brigade was soon detached and captured by Union forces at the Battle of Arkansas Post. The 4th Brigade soldiers were subsequently released by a prisoner exchange, but never returned to the division; instead they served east of the Mississippi River.[8]

1863

On 11 January 1863, Walker’s division arrived near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, and was immediately ordered to march to the relief of Arkansas Post. However, the next day it was found that the place already surrendered. The troops stayed a week in a place they remembered as “Camp Freeze-Out” because of the extremely cold weather.[9] On 19 January, the division marched back to Pine Bluff where they went into winter quarters in more hospitable surroundings. On 23 April, the division broke camp and began to march to Monroe, Louisiana.[10] In mid-May, Walker’s division marched from Monroe to Campti, and then went by steamer on the Red River from Campti to Alexandria.[11] On 31 May, the division reached Perkins’ Landing which its Federal garrison quickly evacuated after skirmishing with McCulloch’s 3rd Brigade. Confederate losses were 1 killed and 6 wounded.[12]

The Confederate authorities ordered Lieutenant General Richard Taylor, the commander in Louisiana, to help the Confederate army trapped in the Siege of Vicksburg. Taylor directed Walker to take his division to Richmond, Louisiana, and attack Union camps on the west bank of the Mississippi River. Walker’s division reached Richmond on the morning of 6 June where information was received that underestimated the strength of the Federals at Milliken’s Bend and Young’s Point. That night, Walker’s troops marched to Oak Grove Plantation where the road forked. Walker ordered Brigadier General James Morrison Hawes‘ brigade to use the right fork to Young’s Point and McCulloch’s brigade to use the left fork toward Milliken’s Bend. Walker held Randal’s brigade at Oak Grove as a reserve.[13]

On 7 June 1863, in the Battle of Milliken’s Bend, McCulloch’s 1,500 soldiers attacked 1,061 Union troops under Colonel Hermann Lieb.[13] Lieb’s command included 900 Black soldiers plus some white soldiers from the 23rd Iowa Infantry Regiment. Despite the Black soldiers being poorly trained, they put up a spirited fight before fleeing to the riverbank.[14] The Union gunboat USS Choctaw shelled the levee, keeping McCulloch’s men from pursuing the Federal infantry. When the USS Lexington arrived on the scene, McCulloch decided to suspend the attack. The Federals suffered 652 casualties while the Confederates lost 185.[13] In response to McCulloch’s appeal, Randal’s brigade came forward to help, but by the time it arrived, the battle was over.[15]

Walker’s division bivouacked near Delhi, Louisiana, where illness reduced the number of men fit for duty.[16] The division then marched south to Alexandria, where it stayed until 10 August.[17] The division moved south to oppose a Union expedition under Major General William B. Franklin that was marching north along Bayou Teche. On 23 October, Franklin’s force reached as far north as Washington, Louisiana. Taylor gathered 11,000 troops for battle north of Washington, but Franklin’s numerically superior force suddenly withdrew.[18] Three Texas infantry regiments, including two from Walker’s division, helped win the Battle of Bayou Bourbeux on 3 November, but the 28th Texas Cavalry was not engaged. The Union force under Brigadier General Stephen G. Burbridge was forced back with losses of 200 killed and wounded, and 600 captured. The Texas infantry lost 21 killed, 82 wounded, and 38 prisoners.[19] At the end of 1863, the 28th Texas Cavalry still had not fought in a major battle.[1]

1864–1865

Randal’s brigade went into its 1863–1864 winter quarters at Marksville, Louisiana.[20] In the Red River campaign, a 26,000-strong Union army under Major General Nathaniel P. Banks and 13 gunboats tried to move up the river to capture Shreveport. At the Battle of Mansfield on 8 April 1864, Taylor massed 11,000 soldiers in the infantry divisions of Walker and Brigadier General Alfred Mouton, and Brigadier General Thomas Green‘s cavalry division.[21] Walker’s division deployed on the west side of the main road with Brigadier General William R. Scurry‘s brigade on the right, Brigadier General Thomas N. Waul‘s brigade in the center, and Randal’s brigade on the left. Mouton’s division lined up on the east side of the road.[22] At 4 pm, Taylor ordered an assault which overran the Federal defenses. Banks’ forces lost an estimated 200 killed, 900 wounded, 1,800 missing, 20 guns, and 250 wagons in the rout. Confederate casualties were about 1,000. Also known as Sabine Cross Roads, the battle marked the farthest limit of Banks’ advance.[23] At Mansfield, the 28th Texas Cavalry lost 4 killed and 17 wounded.[1]

On 9 April 1864, Taylor, reinforced to a strength of 14,300 troops, again attacked Banks’ Union army at the Battle of Pleasant Hill. Walker’s division charged the Federal right flank but was repulsed. Confederate attacks on the Union left flank were initially successful, but were ultimately defeated. Both armies retreated, the Confederates after losing 1,500 casualties and the Federals after losing 1,369 casualties.[24] At Pleasant Hill, the 28th Texas Cavalry lost 9 killed, 44 wounded, and 2 missing.[1] Walker’s division was then ordered to march north into Arkansas to drive off another Federal invading force.[25]

At the Battle of Jenkins’ Ferry on 30 April, Confederate Lieutenant General Edmund Kirby Smith attacked the retreating Union column under Major General Frederick Steele. However, the well-positioned Union soldiers drove back every assault. Walker’s division arrived last and was immediately thrown into action, but it was also defeated.[26] Scurry’s brigade arrived first and fought alone for 40 minutes until Waul’s brigade arrived; Randal’s brigade came into action last. Both Scurry and Randal were mortally wounded, and casualties among the rank and file were substantial.[27] The 28th Texas Cavalry sustained losses of 20 killed, 40 wounded, and 2 missing.[1] Afterward, Steele’s force retreated to Little Rock, Arkansas.[26] Brigadier General Robert Plunket Maclay replaced Randal in command of the 2nd Brigade.[28]

On 17 June 1864, Major General John Horace Forney assumed command of the division from the popular Walker.[29] The soldiers disliked Forney because he was a strict disciplinarian.[1] On 18 February 1865, Forney’s division marched to Shreveport where the soldiers put on a military review and ate a good meal hosted by the townspeople.[30] In late February 1865, Forney’s division was expanded by several regiments and a new 4th Brigade was created. Still led by Colonel Baxter, the 28th Texas Cavalry was reassigned to the 4th Brigade which was led by Brigadier General Wilburn H. King.[31] On 5 March, the division was ordered to march to Hempstead, Texas,[32] and reached there on 15 April near Camp Groce.[33] By 19 May most of the soldiers had gone home,[34] though the formal surrender date for the Trans-Mississippi Department was 26 May 1865.[35]

Southern Cross of Honor

Southern Cross of Honor
Obverse and reverse of the medal
Awarded for Honorable service in the Confederate States armynavy, or marine corps
Date 1899; 125 years ago
Presented by United Daughters
of the Confederacy

The Southern Cross of Honor was a commemorative medal established in 1899 by the United Daughters of the Confederacy to honor Confederate Veterans.[1]

Design

The Cross of Honor is in the form of a cross pattée suspended from a metal bar with space for engraving. It has no cloth ribbon. The obverse displays the Confederate battle flag placed on the center thereof surrounded by a wreath, with the inscription UNITED DAUGHTERS [of the] CONFEDERACY TO THE U. C. V. (the UCV is the United Confederate Veterans) on the four arms of the cross. The reverse of the Cross of Honor is the motto of the Confederate States, DEO VINDICE ([With] God [as] our Vindicator) and the dates 1861 1865 also surrounded by a laurel wreath. The arms of the cross bear the inscription SOUTHERN CROSS OF HONOR.[1]

History

Southern Cross of Honor

Obverse

Reverse

The Cross of Honor was conceived by Mary Ann Erwin, daughter of Confederate politician Howell Cobb, in 1898.[2] [3] She and Sarah E. Gabbett designed it.[3] The first medal was issued on April 26, 1900, to Erwin’s husband, Captain Alexander S. Erwin by the Athens (Georgia) Chapter.[4]

Charles W. Crankshaw of Atlanta, Georgia, was chosen as the contractor to produce the medal.[3] Its first manufacturer was Schwaab Stamp & Seal Co. of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. In 1904 the contract was shifted to Whitehead & Hoag of Newark, New Jersey.[2]

Anna Davenport Raines was the Custodian of Crosses of Honor until her death in 1913.[3] Though intended to end in 1913, after the issuance of 78,761 medals, in 1912 it was extended indefinitely.[5] The program finally ended in 1959.[2]

Eligibility and allocation

The Cross of Honor could only be bestowed through the United Daughters of the Confederacy. It could not be purchased; it was given in recognition of loyal, honorable service to the South and only a Confederate veteran could wear it.[4] It was available to any branch of the Confederate military.[2] Only living veterans were eligible. However the final award was given posthumously, in 1951 to Rear Adm. Raphael Semmes.[2] At least 78,761 were awarded.[2]

Although no Civil War veterans are still living, the last verified Confederate veteran dying in 1951, Virginia Code section 18.2-176(b) remains in effect and makes it a Class 3 misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than US$500, to “wear any Southern Cross of Honor when not entitled to do so by the regulations under which such Crosses of Honor are given.”[6] An unofficial analog of the Union’s GAR Medal, its wearing was never authorized on U.S. military uniforms.[7]

Headstones and markers

The Cross of Honor is also used as an emblem or marker on the graves of Confederate veterans. It will only be issued by the Department of Veterans Affairs to be placed on graves of Confederate veterans.